A fault-finding laboratory employs a wide variety of techniques to look for defects in integrated circuits. It should be noted that any analysis of printed circuit defects is preceded by a thorough examination of the facts that accompany the failure detection and only after the engineers know what they are looking for do they become accustomed to applying specific fault analysis techniques.
There are three types of wide defects that can occur on PCB. Physical interruptions in the material, material composition failures and electrical construction problems. Each of them requires a different approach in detecting and shows different symptoms that can be discovered by analyzing the circumstances surrounding the failure.
The physical breaks in the material are the most obvious. Not that they are easy to spot, but they are easier for a layman to understand. They occur when the integrity of the chip falls apart in some places. Fissures due to fatigue and corrosion are two examples of this type of breakage. Frequently, the defects are small and can not be seen without technologies that aid the test.
The dye penetration test is an excellent way to detect these faults. The chip is stained with a coloring material that reveals cracks and glitches. The specifics of these failures give engineers a clue as to the type of failure.
The second type of failure is one that deals with the purity of the materials. Semiconductor materials are manufactured to very precise specifications with the correct amount of minerals required for certain properties. Deviations from these values will cause the chip to behave unexpectedly. Since the deviations may be small, precise measurements using various emission techniques are used to determine the extent of the faults.
The third type of fault deals with the many electrical failures that can occur in millions of connections on any chip. It’s incredibly difficult to spot these glitches, but one of the starting points is figuring out which part of the chip is overheating. Fluorescent images, as well as liquid crystal images, can be used to find out where the heat is being generated, although this does not automatically mean that the fault is present in that area, as it might occur somewhere “above the river.”
To avoid the disadvantages of printed circuit boards, you should find the company that offers quality PCB assembly services. PCB production is a true science, as is art – and one in which new methods are constantly innovated.